Air conditioners work the same way as refrigerators. Instead of cooling just the inside of a refrigerator, an air conditioner cools a room, a whole house, or an office. The first modern air conditioning system was developed in 1902 by a young electrical engineer named Willis Carrier.
Air conditioners use refrigeration to chill indoor air, taking advantage of a remarkable physical law: When a liquid converts to a gas (in a process called phase conversion), it absorbs heat. Air conditioners exploit this feature of phase conversion by forcing special chemical compounds to evaporate and condense over and over again in a closed system of coils.
How Does it Work?
The machine has three main parts. They are a compressor, a condenser and an evaporator. The compressor and condenser are usually located on the outside. The evaporator is located on the inside of the house.
When hot air in the room or house flows over the cold, low-pressure evaporator coils, the refrigerant inside absorbs heat as it changes from a liquid to a gaseous state. To keep cooling efficiently, the air conditioner has to convert the refrigerant gas back to a liquid again.
To do that, a compressor puts the gas under high pressure, a process that creates unwanted heat. All the extra heat created by compressing the gas is then evacuated to the outdoors with the help of a second set of coils called condenser coils, and a second fan. As the gas cools, it changes back to a liquid, and the process starts all over again.